Encapsulation of Lead Ions in
Sand-Cement-Clay Mixture


Reyad A. Shawabkeh

Department of Chemical Engineering, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan
e-mail: rshawabk@mutah.edu.jo

Bassam Z. Mahasneh

Department of Civil Engineering, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan
e-mail: bassam67@mutah.edu.jo


This study was carried out to test the feasibility of a mixture of sand, cement and clay for immobilizing lead ions from retention into water resources. Various samples with different mass ratios of this mixture were tested to determine their efficiency for holding lead. The compressive test, cation exchange capacity, adsorption equilibrium, and the leaching test were applied to each sample. The sample that proved the high cation exchange capacity with 53.1 meq/100g and compressive test with 11.05 kN/m2 is 25% sand, 50% cement and 25% clay. The equilibrium data for Pb2+ removal using this sample showed a monolayer of adsorption, which can be fitted using Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm model with a regression coefficient of 0.995. The maximum lead uptake obtained from the experimental data was 192 mg/g solid. Introducing clay into this sample proved its sorption capacity while the presence of sand and cement enhanced the resistant of this sample to compressive test.

Keywords: Encapsulation, Solidification, Stabilization, Sand, Cement, Clay, Lead, Adsorption, Cation Exchange Capacity.

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